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Crush It For Curtis Foundation is a 501 (c) (3) charitable organization |EIN 82-3212272

©2019 by Crush It For Curtis Foundation - Bobby The Bladder is ©2019 by Crush It For Curtis Foundation

            

Contact Us Monday - Friday : Phone: 804-629-6429  Toll Free:1-800-403-9152 10 am-4:30 pm EST

Understanding Immunotherapy:

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that boosts the body's natural defenses to fight cancer. Immunotherapy uses substances made by the body or in a laboratory to improve the immune system function.

Immunotherapy Works In Three Ways:

1

Stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells

2

Stopping cancer from spreading to other

parts of the body

3

Helping the immune system work better at

destroying cancer cells.

There are several types of Immunotherapy, including:

 

  • Monoclonal antibodies: human-made versions of immune systems proteins.  Antibodies can be useful in treating cancer they can be designed to attack a very specific part of a cancer cell.  
     

  • Non-specific immunotherapies: These drugs help the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells.
     

  • Cancer vaccines: These are substances put into the body to start an immune response against certain diseases, but some vaccines can help prevent or treat cancer
     

  • Stands for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and is BCGimmunotherapy used to treat bladder cancer.  When inserted directly into the bladder BCG causes an immune response against cancer cells.  
     

  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: are drugs used to treat advanced bladder cancer that's spread outside the bladder or if bladder cancer tumors that have grown again after chemotherapy. 
     

 

Immune Checkpoint inhibitors

Work by blocking the checkpoints on the surface of cancer cells

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy:

PD-1 inhibitors are a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy used in the treatment of bladder cancer. PD1 is a protein on the surface of T  helps keep the body’s immune responses in check. When PD-1 attaches to another protein called PDL-1 on a cancer cell, it stops the T cell from killing the cancer cell. PD-1 inhibitors attach to PDL-1 and allow the T cells to kill cancer cells. Pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, nivolumab, avelumab, and durvalumab are types of PD-1 inhibitors.that cells

 

Pembrolizumab (Keytruda):A drug used to treat certain types of Merkel cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (a type of liver cancer), cervical cancer, stomach cancer, gastroesophageal junction cancer, urothelial cancer (a type of bladder cancer), Hodgkin lymphoma, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, cancer of the head and neck, and melanoma. It is also used to treat some types of solid tumors, including colorectal cancer, that have certain mutations in genes involved in DNA repair. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Pembrolizumab binds to a protein called PD-1, which is found on T cells. Pembrolizumab may block PD-1 and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor. Also called Keytruda.

 

Atezolizumab (Tecentriq): A drug used with bevacizumab, paclitaxel, and carboplatin to treat non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has spread to other parts of the body and has not been treated. It is used in patients whose cancer does not have a mutation (change) in the EGFR or ALK genes. Atezolizumab is also used to treat certain types of NSCLC and urothelial cancer (a type of bladder cancer) that have advanced or spread to other parts of the body and cannot be treated with or have gotten worse during or after treatment with anticancer drugs that included platinum. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Atezolizumab binds to a protein called PD-L1, which is found on some cancer cells. Atezolizumab may block this protein and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor. Also called Tecentriq.

 

Nivolumab (Opdivo): A drug used alone or with ipilimumab to treat a certain type of colorectal cancer that has mutations (changes) in genes involved in DNA repair. It is also used with ipilimumab in some patients to treat renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and melanoma. Nivolumab is also used alone in some patients to treat small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cancer of the head and neck, Hodgkin lymphoma, melanoma, RCC, urothelial carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Nivolumab binds to a protein called PD-1, which is found on T cells (a type of white blood cell). Nivolumab may block PD-1 and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor. Also called Opdivo.

 

Avelumab (Bavencio)A drug used to treat urothelial carcinoma (a type of bladder cancer) that has advanced or spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients whose disease got worse during or after treatment with anticancer drugs that included platinum. Avelumab is also used to treat Merkel cell cancer (a rare type of skin cancer) that has spread to other parts of the body. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Avelumab binds to a protein called PD-L1, which is found on some cancer cells. Avelumab may block PD-L1 and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor. Also called Bavencio.

 

Durvalumab (Imfinz): A drug used to treat stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that cannot be removed by surgery. It is used in patients whose disease did not get worse after treatment with radiation therapy and anticancer drugs that included platinum. Durvalumab is also used to treat urothelial carcinoma (a type of bladder cancer) that is advanced or has spread to other parts of the body. It is used in patients whose disease got worse during or after treatment with anticancer drugs that included platinum. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Durvalumab binds to a protein called PD-L1, which is found on some cancer cells. Durvalumab may block this protein and help the immune system kill cancer cells. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor. Also called Imfinzi.

 

PARP Inhibitors:

A substance that blocks an enzyme in cells called PARP. PARP helps repair DNA when it becomes damaged. DNA damage may be caused by many things, including exposure to UV light, radiation, certain anticancer drugs, or other substances in the environment. In cancer treatment, blocking PARP may help keep cancer cells from repairing their damaged DNA, causing them to die. PARP inhibitors are a type of targeted therapy. Also called poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor.

 

How is Immunotherapy Given:

Intravenous (IV)

The immunotherapy goes directly into a vein

Oral

The immunotherapy comes in pills or capsules that you swallow

Topical

The immunotherapy comes in a cream that you rub onto your skin. This type of immunotherapy can be used for very early skin cancer.

Intravesical

This immunotherapy goes directly into the bladder.

 

Where is Immunotherapy Given:

You may receive immunotherapy in a doctor's office, clinical, or outpatient unit in a hospital 

How Often Will You Receive Immunotherapy Treatment

This depends on:

  • Your type of cancer and how advanced it is
     

  • The type of immunotherapy you get
     

  • How your body reacts to treatment.

 

Patient Resource Guides:

 

Your doctor should have a conversation with you about immunotherapy treatment options, side effects and how to tell whether immunotherapy is working.  For more information on immunotherapy treatment visit the National Cancer Institute at www.cancer.gov or cancer.net